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BOOTH SHOT LINCOLN [1]. AKA - "Booth." Old-Time, Breakdown. USA; western N.C., Eastern Tenn. A Major. AEAE or Standard. AAB (Phillips): AABB (Johnson). The tune was in the repertoires of western North Carolina fiddlers Osey Helton and Marcus Martin (from the Black Mountain region). Bascom Lamar Lumsford learned his version ("Booth Killed Lincoln") from Martin, and both sang the song and played the same tune on the fiddle on his recording. On his Library of Congress recording, however, Lunsford introduces the seven-verse song: "The title of this ballad is 'Booth,' or 'Booth Killed Lincoln.' It's an old fiddle tune, and there are a few variants of the song. I heard my father hum it and sing a few of the stanzas when I was just a boy about six or ten years old." After he sings the song he plays the fiddle tune, similar to Martin's version. Most modern versions are based on Martin's recordings of the tune (he was recorded several times in the 1940's by Library of Congress field personnel, including Alan Lomax in 1942), and Martin gave the title variously as "Booth" or "John Wilkes Booth." Scott DeLancey maintains that the "Booth" melody is a breakdown setting of the Irish jig "The Market Town." Source for notated version: Marcus Martin (North Carolina) [Phillips/1994]. Kuntz, Private Collection. Johnson (The Kitchen Musician: Occasional Collection of Old-Timey Fiddle Tunes for Hammer Dulcimer, Fiddle, etc.), No. 2, 1988; pg. 11. Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes, Vol. 1), 1994; pg. 34. AFS L29, "Folk Music of the United States: Songs and Ballads of American History and of the Assassination of Presidents from the Archive of American Folk Song" (contains two 1949 recordings of Bascom Lamar Lunsford playing "Booth Killed Lincoln," collected by Duncan Emrich). Flying Fish FF 266, Malcolm Daglish & Grey Larsen - "Thunderhead" (1982). Marimac 9000, Dan Gellert and Shoofly - "Forked Deer" (1986. Learned from Marc Gunther). Rounder 1509, Bascom Lamar Lumsford - "Songs and Ballads of American History and of the Assassination of Presidents" (originally issued in the early 1950's by the Library of Congress from the Archive of American Folksong).
T:Booth Shot Lincoln [1]
N:AEAE tuning
N:notated as fingered, not as sounded
A2 EE/E/|D/D/B, D>(D|E/)D/E/F/ G(G|G/)c/B/A/ [G/A/]c/B/A/|G/EE/ E/D/E|
A2 EE/E/|D/D/B, D>f|e/c/B/A/ A/c/B|(G/A)G/ [G2A2]:|
c|:e>(f e)e/e/|f/e/f/(f/ a>)(f|e/)c/B/A/ A/c/B/A/|A/EE/ E/D/E|e>(f e)e/e/|
f/e/f/(f/ a>)(f|e/)c/B/A/ A/c/B/A/|G/AG/ A>c|e>(f e)e/e/|f/e/f/(f/ a>)(f|
e/)c/B/A/ A/c/B/A/|A/EE/ E/D/E| A2 EE/E/|D/D/B, D>f|e/c/B/A/ A/c/B|(G/A)G/ [G2A2]:|

BRAGG'S RETREAT. AKA and see "Forked Deer." Old-Time, Breakdown. USA, Mississippi. D Major. ADAE. AABB. The tune, known usually as "Forked Deer," is older than the title, which undoubtedly refers to the unfortunate Confederate general Baxton Bragg of the western theatre of the American Civil War. Mississippi Department of Archives and History AH-002, Stephen B. Tucker (1939) - "Great Big Yam Potates: Anglo-American Fiddle Music from Mississippi" (1985).

CHINESE BREAKDOWN [1]. AKA and see "Georgia Bust-Down," "Georgia Breakdown." Old-Time, Breakdown; Canadian, Reel. USA; New Hampshire, Va., Alabama, Arkansas. D Major (Messer, Miskoe & Paul, Phillips). Standard. AABB (Messer): AA'BB' (Miskoe & Paul). The tune was recorded from Ozark Mountain fiddlers by musicologist/folklorist Vance Randolph for the Library of Congress in the early 1940's. Sources for notated versions: Kyle Creed (southwestern Va.) [Brody]; Lyman Enloe [Phillips]; Arthur Mitchell (Concord, N.H.) via Omer Marcoux [Miskoe & Paul]. Messer (Anthology of Favorite Fiddle Tunes), 1980; No. 19, pg. 20. Miskoe & Paul (Omer Marcoux), 1994; pg. 22. Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes), Vol. 1, 1994; pg. 49. Alcazar Dance Series ALC 202, Sandy Bradley - "Potluck and Dance Tonite!" (1979). Brunswick 221 (78 RPM), Jack Reedy & His Walker Mountain String Band (reissued on "Music From The Lost Provinces"). County 762, Lyman Enloe- "Fiddle Tunes I Recall." Decca 5069 (78 RPM) {1934}, The Stripling Brothers (Ala.). Folkways FA 2492, The New Lost City Ramblers- "String Band Instrumentals" (1964. Learned from Earl Scrugg's older brother, Junie, and altered from then). Fretless 136, The Arm and Hammer String Band- "Stay on the Farm." Marimac 9000, Dan Gellert & Shoofly - "Forked Deer" (1986. "Inspired by an old McGee Brothers record"). Okeh 45103 (78 RPM), Scottdale String Band. QRS 9010, Hoke Rice. Rebel 1545, Curly Ray Cline- "Why Me Ralph?" Rural Records RRCF 252 (1970), Curly Fox (Ga.). Romeo 5345/Conqueror 8241 (78 RPM), Carolina Ramblers String Band. Rounder 1133/1134, Ed Hayley - "Grey Eagle, Vol. 2" (a four-part version). Voyager 340, Jim Herd - "Old Time Ozark Fiddling." Victor Records (78 RPM), the Skillet Lickers (1934).

CONVICT WALTZ. See "Valse de Quatre-vingt-dix-neuf Ans."

COO COO BIRD. AKA - "Cuckoo Bird." Old-Time, Song Tune. Learned (as were many of his tunes) by North Carolina musician Hobart Smith from John Greer, a neighbor. The piece is known as a banjo song and employs a special tuning ("sawmill tuning") of the instrument. Folk Legacy FSA-17, Hobart Smith - "America's Greatest Folk Instrumentalist" (appears as "Cuckoo Bird"). Folkways FA 2953, Clarence (Tom) Ashley - "Anthology of American Folk Music, Vol. 3" (1952). Marimac 9000, Dan Gellert & Shoofly - "Forked Deer" (1986. Version from Hobart Smith).

CORNBREAD, MOLASSES, SASSAFRAS TEA. Old-time. USA, north Georgia. Marimac 9000, Dan Gellert & Shoofly - "Forked Deer" (1986. Learned from a Fiddlin' John Carson recording).

COTTEN-EYED JOE [1]. See "Citaco." Old-Time, Breakdown. USA, widely known, but may have originally been a Texas tune. A Major (most versions): G Major (Ford, Kaufman): D Major (Zenith String Band). Standard, AEAE, ADAE, GDAD (Thede, John Dykes). AABB (Perlman): AABBA: AA'BB' (Kaufman). Charles Wolfe has called this tune "a Texas dance-hall anthem" but it has had such widespread currency in the United States that the tune is really a pastiche of melodies using interchangable phrases, the most recognizable of which usually is associated with the verses:
Where did you come from, where will you go?
Where did you come from Cotten-Eyed Joe.
Marion Thede believes 'cotten-eyed' may refer to a person with very light blue eyes, while Alan Lomax suggests it was used to describe a man whose eyes were milky white from Trachoma. Charles Wolfe (1991) writes that African-American collector Thomas Talley, in his manuscript of stories, Negro Traditions, relateed a story entitled "Cotton-Eyed Joe, or the Origin of the Weeping Willow." The story includes a stanza from the song, "but more importantly details a bizarre tale of a well-known pre-Civil War plantation musician, Cotton Eyed Joe, who plays a fiddle made from the coffin of his dead son."
The tune was a favorite of John Dykes (Magic City Trio {Eastern Tenn.}) and it was in the repertoire of Arizona fiddler Kenner C. Kartchner (in the key of G Major) who said a fellow fiddler named Youngblood brought it to the territory from Mississippi around 1890. It was one of the tunes played at the turn of the century by Etowah County, Alabama, fiddler George Cole, according to Mattie Cole Stanfield in her book Sourwood Tonic and Sassafras Tea (1963), and was mentioned in accounts of the DelKalb County Annual (Fiddlers) Convention, 1926-31. The title appears in a list of traditional Ozark Mountain fiddle tunes compiled by musicologist/folklorist Vance Randolph, published in 1954. Some verisons are similar to Lowe Stokes (N.Ga.) popular "Citaco." Ken Perlman (1996), who collected the tune on Prince Edward Island, believes Canadian versions probably derived from the playing of radio and TV Maritime fiddler Don Messer (the 'B' part is played with a strong Acadian flavor). See also Bayard's (1981) note to a related tune "The Horse Called Rover" (No. 10, pgs. 20-21).
Where'd you come from, where'd you go?
Where'd you come from Cotten-Eyed Joe.
I'd-a been married a long time ago,
If it hadn't a-been for Cotten-Eyed Joe.
Cornstalk fiddle and shoestring bow,
Come down gals on Cotten Eyed Joe.
Wanna go to meeting and wouldn't let me go,
Had to stay home with Cotten Eyed Joe.
Come a little rain and come a little snow,
The house fell down on Cotten Eyed Joe. (Thede)
Hold my fiddle and hold my bow,
'Till I knock the devil out of cotton-eyed Joe. (Ford)
I'll make me a fiddle and make me a bow,
And I'll learn to play like Cotten-eyed Joe.
I tun'd up my fiddle, I went to a dance,
I tried to make some music, but I couldn't get a chance.
You hold my fiddle and you hold my bow,
Till I whip old Satan out of Cotten-eyed Joe.
I've make lot of fiddles and made lot of bows,
But I never learned to fiddle like Cotten-eyed Joe. (Thomas & Leeder).
Thomas Talley gives the following in Negro Folk Rhymes:
Hol' my fiddle an' hol' my bow,
Whilst I knocks ole Cotton Eyed Joe.
I'd a been dead some seben years ago,
If I hadn' a danced dat Cotton Eyed Joe.
Oh, it makes dem ladies love me so,
W'en I comes 'roun' pickin' ole Cotton Eyed Joe.
Yes, I'd a been married some forty years ago,
If I hadn' stay's home wid Cotton Eyed Joe.
I hain't seed ole Joe, sonce way las' Fall;
Dey say he's been sol' down to Guinea Gall.
Sources for notated versions: Highwoods String Band (New York) [Brody]; John Hendricks (Bates, Arkansas) [Thede]; Tommy Magness [Phillips/1994]; Steve Hawkins (Rowan County, Kentucky, 1911) [Thomas & Leeder]; Louise Arsenault (b. 1956, Wellington, East Prince County, Prince Edward Island) [Perlman]. Brody (Fiddler's Fakebook), 1983; pg. 74. R.P. Christeson (Old Time Fiddlers Repertory, Vol. 1), 1973; pg. 20. Ford (Traditional Music in America), 1940; pg. 60. Frets Magazine, "Byron Berline: The Fiddle," September 1981; pg. 64. Kaufman (Beginning Old Time Fiddle), 1977; pg. 50. Perlman (The Fiddle Music of Prince Edward Island), 1996; pg. 86. Phillips (Fiddlecase Tunebook), 1989; pg. 12. Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes), 1994; pgs. 56 & 57 (two versions). Thede (The Fiddle Book), 1967; pg. 26-27. Thomas & Leeder (The Singin' Gatherin'), 1939; pg. 60. Bay 209, "The Gypsy Gyppo String Band" (1977. Learned from Paul Ermine of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan). Bay 727, "Kenny Hall and the Sweets Mill String Band." Briar 0798, Earl Collins- "That's Earl." Caney Mountain Records CEP 213 (privately issued extended play LP), Lonnie Robertson (Mo.), c. 1965-66. Cassette C-7625, Wilson Douglas - "Back Porch Symphony." County 506, The Skillet Lickers- "Old Time Tunes, 1927-1931." County 518, Pope's Arkansas Mountaineers- "Echoes of the Ozarks, Vol. 1." County 520, Carter Brothers and Son- "Echoes of the Ozarks, Vol. 3." County 528, Carter Bros. & Son - "Mississippi Breakdown, Traditional Fiddle Music of Mississippi, Vol. 1." County 544, Fiddlin' John Carson- "Georgia Fiddle Bands, Vol. 2." County 756, Tommy Jarrell- "Sail Away Ladies" (1976. Learned after 1925 from a friend, Charlie Lowe, a clawhammer banjoist who heard the tune broadcast on Nashville radio). Fretless 201, Gerry Robichaud--"Maritime Dance Party." Gusto 104, Tommy Jackson- "30 Fiddler's Greatest Hits." Heritage XXIV, Dave Holt - "Music of North Carolina" (Brandywine, 1978). Heritage XXXIII, Zenith String Band (Conn.) - "Visits" (1981. Learned from the Carter Brothers via Vermont/Ohio fiddler Pete Sutherland). June Appal JA 028, Wry Straw - "From Earth to Heaven" (1978. Version learned from Creed Power {Dungannon, VA} and Byard Ray {Shelton Laurel, N.C.}). Mercury SRW 16261, Tommy Jackson- "Instrumentals Country Style." Marimac 9000, Dan Gellert & Shoofly - "Forked Deer" (1986. Version learned from Carter Bros. & Son recording). Marimac 9009, Doris Kimble & Dave Spilkia - "Old Time Friends" (1987). Old Homestead OHCS191, "Dykes Magic City Trio" (Eastern Tenn.) {originally recorded in 1927 on a Brunswick 78}. Rounder 0074, Highwoods String Band- "No. 3 Special" (1977). Rounder 0047, Wilson Douglas- "The Right Hand Fork of Rush's Creek" (1975). Rounder 0193, Rodney Miller - "Airplang" (1985). Rounder CD0262, Mike Seeger - "Fresh Oldtime String Band Music" (1988. With the Ithica, N.Y., group Agents of Terra). Stoneway 143, Ernie Hunter- "All About Fiddling." Tennvale 004, Bruce Molsky- "An Anthology."
T:Cotton Eyed Joe
S:Howdy Forrester, learned from his Uncle Bob; originally transcribed by John Hartford
A/|B/d/d d>d|f/d/e/f/ d>d|B/A/G/B/ A/G/E/G/|B/A/B D>:|
|:E/|D/E/G/B/ A/G/E/F/|G/A/B/d/ cd/c/|B/A/G/B/ A/G/E/G/|B/A/B D>:|

DEER WALK [1]. AKA and see "Forked Deer." Old-Time, Breakdown. USA, eastern Ky. The title is indigenous to eastern Kentucky; native Doc Roberts (1897-1978), who recorded the tune in 1929, paid little attention to music outside the region (Wolfe, 1982) and the implication is that the tune's provenace was that region. Charles Wolfe (1997) calls it one of Roberts' masterpieces. It was played by fiddler Ernie Hodges in the 1930's and 40's and was recorded by him in 1976. County 412, "Fiddling Doc Roberts." Gennett 7049 (78 RPM), Doc Roberts (1930).

DRY AND DUSTY [1]. Old-Time, Breakdown. USA; Arkansas, Missouri. D Major. DDAD or Standard. AABB. The tune was recorded for the Library of Congress from Ozark Mountain fiddlers in the early 1940's by musicologist/folklorist Vance Randolph. Ken Perlman (1979) relates that whenever an Ozark fiddler wanted a drink while playing for a dance he played this tune as a cue that he was feeling "Dry and Dusty". Reiner & Anick (1989) suggest the title refers rather to the "drought and dust endured by settlers on government-provided, free land claims in the West." A variant of the usual "Dry and Dusty," in DADD tuning (the same tuning the Morrison Twin Brothers used), appears as an untitled tune on Texas fiddler Eck Robertson's County LP (County 202). Sources for notated versions: Gus Vandergriff (Pulaski County, Missouri) [Christeson]; Morrison Twin Brothers (Ark.) [Reiner & Anick]; Lynn 'Chirps' Smith [Phillips]. Christeson (Old Time Fiddlers Repertory, Vol. 1), 1973; pg. 68. Reiner & Anick (Old Time Fiddling Across America), 1989; pg. 121. Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes), Vol. 1, 1994; pg. 75. Caney Mountain Records CLP 213 (privately issued extended play LP), Lonnie Robertson (Mo.), c. 1965-66. County 518, Morrison Twin Brothers String Band (Ark.) - "Echoes of the Ozarks" (orig. rec. 1930). County 790, Leftwich & Higginbotham - "No One to Bring Home Tonight" (1984). Marimac 9000, Dan Gellert & Shoofly - "Forked Deer" (1986). Rounder 0320, Bob Carlin & John Hartford - "The Fun of Open Discussion."

EIGHTH OF JANUARY. AKA and see "Jackson's Victory." Old-Time, Bluegrass; Breakdown. USA, Widely known. D Major. Standard or ADAE. AABB (Brody, Christeson, Phillips, Ruth, Sing Out, Sweet): AABB' (Krassen). One of the most popular and widespread of Southern fiddle tunes. Ken Perlman (1979) reports that the melody was originally named "Jackson's Victory" after Andrew Jackson's famous rout of the British at New Orleans on January, 8th, 1815. Around the time of the Civil War, some time after Jackson's Presidency, his popular reputation suffered and the tune was renamed to delete mention of him by name, thus commemorating the battle and not the man. Despite its wide dissemination, Tom Carter (1975) says that some regard it as a relatively modern piece refashioned from an older tune named "Jake Gilly." Not all agree-Tom Rankin (1985) suggests the fiddle tune may be older than the battle it commemorates, and that it seems American in origin, not having an obvious British antecedent, as do several older popular fiddle tunes in the United States. A related tune (though the 'B' part is developed differently") is Bayard's (1981) Pennsylvania collected "Chase the Squirrel" (the title is a floater).
"Eighth of January" was recorded for the Library of Congress from Ozark Mountain fiddlers in the early 1940's by musicologist/folklorist Vance Randolph, and from Mississippi fiddlers (John Hatcher, W.E. Claunch, Enos Canoy, Hardy Sharp) in 1939 by collector Herbert Halpert. It was in the repertoire of Cuje Bertram, an African-American fiddler from the Cumberland Plateau region of Kentucky who recorded it on a home tape in 1970, made for his family. In the 1950's Jimmy Driftwood famously refashioned the tune with new lyrics into his best-selling song "The Battle of New Orleans."
Missouri fiddler Glenn Rickman, born in 1901, was featured in an article in Bittersweet magazine and played "The Eighth of January" as part of his core repertoire. He had a seemingly curious habit:
I play the 'Eighth of January' over the telephone to a department store
here. Every eighth of January I call up the department store and they
put in on their loud speaker. This time I had it taped. I played 'Carroll
County Blues,...Sally Goodin',...Forked Deer' and 'Eighth of January.'
I'm glad to get to do this. The 'Eighth of January,' that was known way
back before my grandpa was born...
Rickman's playing over the phone for a department store audience is less curious when one considers that playing over the phone was at one time not unusual:
When the party line came in, telephones were used sort of like the radio
was later. Ten to fifteen families on a line could all listen in. On lines
like Slim Wilson's line, the neighbors would get a treat. The Wilson
family that lived near Nixa, Missouri, were all good musicians, and
when they were ready to play, they'd signal over the telephone line.
Everyone would take down the receivers and listen to the Wilson
family fiddling. Some would let the receiver hang down in a bucket
to help amplify the sound. (Allen Gage, Bittersweet, Volume IX, No. 3, Spring 1982)
Sources for notated versions: Charlie Higgins (Galax, Va.) [Krassen]; Cyril Stinnett (Oregon, Missouri) [Christeson]; Tommy Jackson [Phillips/1994]. Brody (Fiddler's Fakebook), 1983; pg. 99. R.P. Christeson (Old Time Fiddler's Repertory, Vol. 2), 1984; pg. 65. Ford (Traditional Music in America), 1940; pg. 63. Kaufman (Beginning Old Time Fiddle), 1977; pg. 39. Krassen (Appalachian Fiddle), 1973; pg. 50. Phillips (Fiddlecase Tunebook), 1989; pg. 17. Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes), Vol. 1, 1994; pg. 80. Ruth (Pioneer Western Folk Tunes), 1948; No. 15, pg. 7. Sing Out, Vol. 36, No. 2, August, 1991; pg. 77. Sweet (Fifer's Delight), 1964/1981; pg. 76. Brunswick 239 (78 RPM) {1928}, Dr. Humphrey Bate and His Possum Hunters (Nashville, Tenn. Bill Barret was the fiddler for the tune, not Bate's regular, Oscar Stone). Caney Mountain Records CLP 228, Lonnie Robertson (Mo.) - "Fiddle Favorites." County 518, Arkansas Barefoot Boys- "Echoes of the Ozarks, Vol. 1." County 531, "Old TIme String Band Classics" (1975). County 541, Dr. Humphrey Bate & His Possum Hunters - "Nashville; the Early String Bands, Vol. 1." County 727, John Ashby- "Old Virginia Fiddling." Heritage 060, Major Contay and the Canebreak Rattlers - "Music of the Ozarks" (Brandywine, 1984). Kicking Mule KM-301, "Happy Traum, American Stranger" (1977). Marimac 9017, Vesta Johnson - "Down Home Rag." Mississippi Department of Archives and History AH-002, Hardy C. Sharp (Meridian, Mississippi) - "Great Big Yam Potatoes: Anglo-American Fiddle Music from Mississippi" (1985). Missouri State Old Time Fiddlers' Association, Bob Walters (b. 1889) - "Drunken Wagoneer." Morning Star 45004, Ted Gossett's String Band (western Ky., originally recorded Sept., 1930) - "Wish I Had My Time Again." Ok 45496 (78RPM), The Fox Chasers. Rounder 0085, "Tony Rice." Rounder 7002, Graham Townsend--"Le Violin/The Fiddle." Spr 2655 (78 RPM), Buddy Young's Kentuckian's (AKA the Ted Gossett Band, originally recorded Sept. 1930). Spt 9775 (78 RPM), The Country String Band (AKA the Ted Gossett Band/Buddy Young's Kentuckian's/Tommy Whitmer Band). Voyager 340, Jim Herd - "Old Time Ozark Fiddling."
T:Eighth of January
e/a/|f/e/f/a/ f/e/d/f/|e/f/e/d/ BB/d/|ee/f/ e/d/B/A/|d/B/A/F/ De/a/|
f/e/f/a/ f/e/d/f/|e/f/e/d/ B/d/e/f/|a/f/e/a/ f/e/c/A/|d/B/A/F/ D:|
|:A/A/|AA/B/ AA/A/|A/d/B/A/ F/E/D/F/|AA/B/ AA/d/|B/A/F/E/ DD/F/|
AA/B/ AA/A/|A/d/B/A/ F/E/D/F/|AA/A/ A/d/f/e/|d/B/A/F/ D:|

FORKED BUCK. See "Forked Deer."

FORKED DEER, (THE). AKA - "Forked Buck," "Forky Deer," "Forked-Horn Deer," "Forked Deer Hornpipe," "Long-Horned Deer." AKA and see "Deer Walk," "Bragg's Retreat," "Van Buren." Old-Time, Breakdown. USA, Widley known. D Major. Standard or ADAE. AABB (most versions): AA'BB (Phillips) {Many older versions have several more parts than the two that are commonly played in modern times. Clay County, W.Va., fiddler Wilson Douglas, heir to an older tradition, plays the tune in three parts, as did his mentor French Carpenter. Roscoe Parish of Coal Creek, Va., also had a third part. Blind northeastern Kentucky fiddler Ed Hayley played a five part version, as did Charlie Bowman and Kentuckian J.W. Day}. John Johnson, an itinerant man originally from West Virginia who had artistic talent in several areas, had a version that had six parts, played ABACCDEFDEF (son of a jailer, he was said to have "fiddled his way in and out of most jails from West Virginia to Abiline"). Johnson (1916-1996) visited Kanawha County, West Virginia, fiddler Clark Kessinger (1896-1975) just a week before he died, an encounter from which he remembered:
I went and played the fiddle for him, played The Forked Deer.
Clark said, "That's not The Forked Deer." "Well," I said, "I
don't know whether it's The Forked Deer or not, but I learned
it from a record Arthur Smith made when I was a kid, and I
know the tune's way older than I am." And Clark said, "That
ain't The Forked Deer." But you see, I play six parts of The
Forked Deer and he just played two. So I suppose that's the
reason why he said that wasn't The Forked Deer. I learned that
whole tune just like Arthur Smith played it. I've heard lots of
other fiddlers put just two parts to it. (Michael Kline, Mountains of Music, John Lilly ed. 1999).
R.P. Christeson (1973) notes that the tune bears considerable resemblance to a Scottish tune named "Rachel Rae," which can be found in some of the older Scottish tune collections (and which in America was printed in such collections as White's Solo Banjoist, Boston, 1896). He notes that some fiddlers play the first part of this tune differently than the Missouri version he gives, and use a portion of "The Forked Deer" as published in George Willig's or George P. Knauff's Virginia Reels (Vol. 1, No. 4, Baltimore, c. 1839)--which appears to be the first time the "Forked Deer" tune appears in print. It has been suggested (by William Byrne) that the title "Forked Deer" is a corruption of 'Fauquier Deer', referring to the name of a county in northern Virginia. Others believe it may have derived from association with the Forked Deer River in Tennessee. Apparently, it was asserted in a fictionalized traveller's account (published in the late 1880's by Dr. H.W. Taylor) entitled "The Cadence and Decadence of the Hoosier Fiddler" that the title referred to a Deer river and its tributaries (i.e. 'the forks of the Deer'). John Hartford and Pat Sky have speculated the original title may have been "Forked Air," meaning a crooked melody. Indeed, Paul Tyler reports the "Forked Air" title was used in a 1950 notebook in which A. Hamblen noted down tunes played by his grandfather and brought to Brown County, Indiana, from Virginia in 1857. The tune, as "Forkadair," appears in W. Morris's Oldtime Viloin Melodies: Book No. 1, and the "Forkedair Jig" is a title Gerry Milnes (1999) says was used in a minstrel-era version.
Miles Krassen (1973) remarks the tune is very popular through most of the southern Appalachians, though it was not played for the most part by Galax, Va., style bands. Tommy Jarrell, quintessential Round Peak (near Mt.Airy, N.C./Galax, Va.) fiddler learned the tune in Carroll County, southwestern Virginia, where he listened to his father-in-law, Charlie Barnett Lowe play it on the banjo with local fiddlers Fred Hawkes and John Rector. It is one of the tunes mentioned in the humorous dialect story "The Knob Dance," published in 1845, set in eastern Tenn. (C. Wolfe), and was also known before the Civil War in Alabama, having been recalled by Alfred Benners in Slavery and Its Results as played by slave fiddler Jim Pritchett of Marengo County. The tune was mentioned by William Byrne who described a chance encounter with West Virginia fiddler 'Old Sol' Nelson during a fishing trip on the Elk River. The year was around 1880, and Sol, whom Byrne said was famous for his playing "throughout the Elk Valley from Clay Courthouse to Sutton as...the Fiddler of the Wilderness," had brought out his fiddle after supper to entertain (Milnes, 1999). Charles Wolfe (1982) remarks it was popular with Kentucky fiddlers, especially in eastern Kentucky (a remark probably based on recordings of regional fiddlers Ed Hayley and J.W. Day). It was one of the few sides cut in the first recorded session of American fiddle music in June, 1922, for Victor--a duet between Texas fiddler Eck Robertson and Henry Gilliland (though unissued). The tune was recorded for the Library of Congress by musicologist/folklorist Vance Randolph in the early 1940's from the playing of Ozark Mountain fiddlers. Alternate titles "Forked-Horn Deer" and "Forked Deer Hornpipe" appear in a list he compiled of traditional Ozark Mountain fiddle tunes.
Ira Ford's (1940) rather preposterous story of the origins of the title is as follows: "The old dance tune, 'Forked Deer', is easily traceable to the days of powder horns, bullet molds and coonskin caps. Like many other very old tunes of American fiddle lore, it had its origin on the isolated frontier and this one has been traced to the first settlers along the Big Sandy River, the border line of Virginia and Kentucky. In the family which preserved this tune, the story, handed down through several generations, credits the authorship to a relative, a noted fiddler of pioneer days. This kinsman was also a famous hunter. There was a spirit of friendly rivalry in the hunt, much the same as there were championships in other lines of activities, and he had established a reputation as a champion deer hunter by always bringing in a forked deer. The forked deer, or two-point buck, was considered prime venison. As a token of admiration for the hunter as well as the fiddler, his friends set the following words to this popular dance tune which comes down to us as 'Forked Deer'.
There's the doe tracks and fawn tracks up and down the creek
The signs all tell us that the roamers are near,
With the old flint-lock rifle Pappy's gone to watch the lick,
With powder in the pan for to shoot the forked deer.
Sources for notated versions: J.P. Fraley (Ky.) and The Highwoods String Band (N.Y.) [Brody]: Will Hinds (Haskell County, Oklahoma) [Thede]: George Helton (Dixon, Missouri) [Christeson]; Frank George and John Rector (W.Va., Va.) [Krassen]; Charlie Bowman (Ga.?) [Phillips/1989]. Brody (Fiddler's Fakebook), 1983; pg. 110. R.P. Christeson (Old Time Fiddlers Repertory, Vol. 1), 1973; pg. 64. Ford (Traditional Music in America), 1940; pg. 45 (the first part is similar to some versions of "Grey Eagle"). Frets Magazine, Vol. 3, No. 7, July 1981. Johnson (The Kitchen Musician: Occasional Collection of Old-Timey Fiddle Tunes for Hammer Dulcimer, Fiddle, etc.), No. 2, 1982/1988; pg. 5. Krassen (Appalachian Fiddle), 1973; pg. 43 (includes one 'B' part variation). Phillips (Fiddlecase Tunebook: Old Time), 1989; pg. 20. Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes), Vol. 1, 1994; pg. 91. Thede (The Fiddle Book), 1967; pg. 135. Songer (Portland Collection), 1997; pg. 80. Cassette C-7625, Wilson Douglas - "Back Porch Symphony." Columbia 15387 (78 RPM), Charlie Bowman (1929). Condor 977-1489, "Graham & Eleanor Townsend Live At Barre, Vermont." County 202, "Eck Robertson: Famous Cowboy Fiddler." County 527, Charlie Bowman (East Tennessee) and His Brothers- "Old-Time Fiddle Classics, Vol. 2." County 707, Major Franklin- "Texas Fiddle Favorites." County 756, Tommy Jarrell- "Sail Away Ladies" (1976. Learned from Fred Hawks, though Tommy's father Ben Jarrell also played it). Flying Fish FF-009, Red Clay Ramblers - "Stolen Love" (1975). Flying Fish FF-055, Red Clay Ramblers - "Merchant's Lunch" (1977). Front Hall FHR-021, John McCutcheon - "Barefoot Boy with Boots On" (1981. "Inspired by" J.P. Fraley and Tommy Hunter). June Appal 007, Tommy Hunter- "Deep in Tradition" (1976. Learned from his grandfather, James W. Hunter of Madison County, N.C.). Kanawha 301, French Carpenter (W.Va.). Library of Congress (2742-A-3), 1939, by H.L. Maxey (Franklin County, Va.) {as "Forky Deer"}. Marimac 9000, Dan Gellert & Shoofly - "Forked Deer" (1986. Ed Haley's version, "without the 5th part"). Missouri State Old Time Fiddlers' Association, Cyrill Stinnett (1912-1986) - "Plain Old Time Fiddling." Morning Star 45003, Taylor's Kentucky Boys - "Wink the Other Eye: Old Time Fiddle Band Music from Kentucky, Vol. 1" (1980. Originally recorded in 1927 for Gennett). Ok 45496 (78 RPM), The Fox Chasers. Rounder 0037, J.P. and Annadeene Fraley- "Wild Rose of the Mountain." Rounder 0045, Highwoods String Band- "Dance All Night." Rounder 1010, Ed Haley- "Parkersburg Landing" (1976). Rounder 0047, Wilson Douglas- "The Right Hand Fork of Rush's Creek" (1975. Learned from French Carpenter, the tune appears as "Forked Buck"). Rounder 0058, John Rector (western Va.) - "Old Originals, Vol. II" (1978). Rounder 0194, John W. Summers - "Indiana Fiddler." Vetco 506, Fiddlin' Van Kidwell- "Midnight Ride." Vetco 102 (reissue), Jilson Setters (under the name Blind Bill Day). Victor 21407 (78 RPM), Jilson Setters (Blind Bill Day, b. 1860 Rowan Cty., Ky.), 1928. Voyager 340, Jim Herd - "Old Time Ozark Fiddling." Also recorded by Frank George and John Summers, French Carpenter and Uncle Am Stuart (b. 1856, Morristown, Tenn.){for Vocalation in 1924 under the title "Forki Deer"}.
T:Forked Deer
|:(3ABc|defg a2fa|g2gb agfe|defg a2fa|gfed cABc|defg a2fa|g2gb agfe|
|:(A|A2)A2c4|ABAF E2 EF|A2AB c2cA|BAFE FD3|A2A2c4|ABAF E2FE|

GLORY AT/IN THE MEETINGHOUSE. Old-Time, Breakdown. USA; Mt. Airy, N.C., Ky. D Mixolydian (Carlin/Sing Out): E Major/Mixolydian (Phillips). Standard, EDAE or ADAD. AABB'BB'C (Carlin/Sing Out): AA'BB'AA'B"B"'. The melody was in the repertoires of Kentucky fiddlers Luther Strong (Salyersville, Ky.) and W.M. (Bill) Stepp. It was also collected from fiddlers Bev Baker and Boyd Asher, from the same region. Strong recorded his version for Alan Lomax and the Library of Congress in 1937, a trip which resulted in several eastern Kentucky fiddler's waxing their renditions (on aluminium disks!) of this tune for the musicologist. The piece can be played either in the major or mixolydian mode. The tune has similarities to "Jerusalem Ridge," Sources for notated versions: Mark Graham (Seatle, Wash.) [Carlin/Sing Out]; Armin Barnett with the Hurricane Ridgerunners [Phillips]. Sing Out! ("Teach In: Clawhammer Banjo," Bob Carlin). Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes), Vol. 2, 1995; pg. 56. Library of Congress L2 ("Anglo-American Shanties, Lyric Songs, Dance Tunes and Spirituals") - Luther Strong (orig. rec. 1937). Flying Fish 283, The Harmony Sisters. Green Linnet SIF 1122, Kevin Burke - "Open House" (1992). Marimac 9000, Dan Gellert & Shoofly - "Forked Deer" (1986). Rounder CD 0139, The Hurricane Ridgerunners - "The Young Fogies." Shanachie Records 6040, Gerry Milnes & Lorriane Lee Hammond - "Hell Up Coal Holler" (1999. Learned from Luther Strong's recording). Yazoo CD 2014, Luther Strong - "Music of Kentucky" Vol. 2. Yodel-ay-hee Records 002, Critton Hollow Stringband - Sweet Home" (1983). Yodel-ay-hee Records 014, The New Dixie Entertainers - "Maybelle Rag."
T:Glory in the Meeting House
S:Gerry Milnes
Z:Transcribed by Andrew Kuntz
A/B/d d/B/A/F/|A/B/d d>B|A/B/d d/B/A/G/|F/G/A/F/ D2|
A/B/d d/B/A/F/|A/B/d d>e|f/e/f/e/ d/B/A/G/|F/G/A/F/ D2:|
|:D/E/F/G/ A/B/A/G/|A/B/A/F/ DD/D/|D/E/F/G/ A/B/A/G/|F(D D2:|
"Variations" B- Part
|:d/e/f/g/ a(a|a/)g/f/e/ d/B/A/B/|d/e/f/g/ a/b/a/g/|f(d d2):|

GREEN MOUNTAIN POLKA. Old-Time, Polka. USA; southwestern Virginia. See also closely related tunes "Plaza Polka" and "Richmond Polka." Recorded by Herbert Halpert for the Library of Congress (2738-B-3 and 2744-A-5), 1939, from the playing of both the Houston Bald Knob String Band and H.L. Maxey (Franklin County, Va.). Columbia 15070-D (78 RPM), Charlie LaPrade and the Blue Ridge Highballers. Rounder CD 1131, Ed Hayley - "Forked Deer." Victor V-40304 (78 RPM), Earl Johnson & His Dixie Entertainers.

GROUNDHOG. Old-Time, Song Tune and Breakdown. USA, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia. A Major. Standard. One part. A well-known Appalachian folk song, nursery and fun song, and banjo tune. Brown says, "Its appearence in the Ozarks is doubtless due to immigration from Kentucky. It has not been found in the northern states, nor is it a Negro song." The first two verses in "Traditional American Folk Songs" go:
Two in a stump and one in a log
Two in a stump and one in a log,
Don't I wish I had a dog
Yonder comes Sal with a great long pole,
Yonder comes Sal with a great long pole,
To punch that groundhog out of his hole,
Groundhog! (Warner)
Source for notated version: learned by Frank Proffitt (North Carolina) from his father [Warner]. Warner (Traditional American Folk Songs), 1984; pgs. 296-297. Flying Fish 102, New Lost City Ramblers - "Twenty Years/Concert Performances" (1978). Folkways FA 2360, Frank Proffitt. Heritage 054, Tommy Jarrell - "Brandywine 83: Music of French America" (1984). Marimac 9000, Dan Gellert & Shoofly - "Forked Deer" (1986). Recorded Anthology of American Music (1978) - "Traditional Southern Instrumental Styles." Rounder Cd0278, Mike Seegar - "Solo-Old Time Country Music" (1991). The Whistlepigs - "Out of Their Hole."

JUNE APPLE. Old-Time, Breakdown. USA, Virginia. A Mixolydian. Standard or AEAE (Tommy Jarrell). AABB. A June apple is an early ripening variety of apple, maturing in the Spring in the southern United States. It tends to be smaller and more tart then later-ripening apples. This ditty is sometimes sung to the 'B' part:
Wish I was a June Apple,
Hanging on a tree,
And every time my true love passed,
She'd take a little bite of me. (Johnson)
Sources for notated versions: Red Clay Ramblers (N.C.) [Brody]: Uncle Charlie Higgins (Galax, Va.) [Krassen]: Allan Block and Andy May [Spandaro]. Brody (Fiddler's Fakebook), 1983; pg. 153. Johnson (Old-Timey Fiddle Tunes for Hammer Dulcimer, Fiddle, etc), No. 2, 1982/1988; pg. 6. Krassen (Appalachian Fiddle), 1973; pg. 34-35. Phillips (Fiddlecase Tunebook), 1989; pg. 24. Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes), 1994; pg. 130. Spandaro (10 Cents a Dance), 1980; pg. 37. County 713, Cockerham, Jarrell, and Jenkins- "Down to the Cider Mill" (Tommy Jarrell learned the tune from his father, Ben Jarrell). Folkways FTS 331038, Roger Sprung and Hal Wylie- "Bluegrass Blast." Heritage 054, Smokey Valley Boys - "Brandywine '83: Music of French America" (1984). Marimac AHS #3, Glen Smith - "Say Old Man" (1990. Learned from Tommy Jarrell). Marimac 9000, Dan Gellert & Shoofly - "Forked Deer" (1986. Learned from Tommy Jarrell). Tennvale 002, Red Clay Ramblers- "Galax '73."
T:June Apple
eg | ageg ageg | agec A2ef | g2gf g2ef | gagf e2eg |
ageg ageg | agec A2cd | eaag aged | cAAG A2 :|
|: e2 | ecB2 A3A | c2d2 e3A | G2GG GBd2 | g4 f4 |
ecB2 A3A | c2d2 e3A | G2GG BAG2 | A6 :|

JOHNNY BOOKER. Old-Time. The tune is known as a banjo piece and stems from the minstrel era. Gene Winnans mentions an African-American banjo player named Gus Cannon, who worked medicine shows from 1914 to 1929. Cannon's first two tunes (learned in "strumming style") were "Old John Booker You Call That Gone" and "It Ain't Gonna Rain No More," learned from "Old Man Saul" Russell, who "just played around the house fro his own amusement." The musical West Virginia Hammons family had members who played this tune, as did Tygart Valley banjo players (Gerald Milnes, 1999). Marimac 9000, Dan Gellert and Shoofly - "Forked Deer" (1986. Learned from the New Lost City Ramblers).

LONG-HORNED DEER. AKA and see "Forked Deer." The tune was known by this title by West Virginia fiddler French Carpenter.

OLD SAGE FRIEND. AKA - "Old Sage Fields." Old-Time, Breakdown. USA, Cumberland Plateau region of south-central Ky./north Tenn. border. G Major. Standard. AABBAABBCCDDAA. The original title, I believe, is "Old Sage Friend," not "Old Sage Fields," which comes from Kentucky fiddler Jim Bowles. Source for notated version: Jere Canote [Phillips]. Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes, Vol. 1), 1994; pg. 174 (appears as "Old Sage Fields"). Marimac 9000, Dan Gellert & Shoofly - "Forked Deer" (1986. Learned from a field recording of Ky. fiddler Jim Bowles). Marimac 9060, Jim Bowles (b. 1903, Ky.) - "Railroading Through the Rocky Mountians" (Learned from local musicians). Rounder CD 0238, John Lusk Band - "Altamont: Black String Band Music From the Library of Congress."

RACHEL RAE. AKA and see "The Bashful Bachelor Hornpipe," "Courting Them All," "Don't Bother Me," "Jimmy Holmes' Favorite," "The Moving Bogs (of Allen)," "Miss Rae's Reel," "Obelisk Hornpipe," "Shaw's Reel," "Where Did You Find Her?" "The Wily Old Bachelor." Scottish, Reel. D Major. Standard. AB (Honeyman): AAB (Athole, Kennedy, Kerr, Raven, Skye): ABB' (Hardie). Attributed often to John Lowe and appearing in his Collection, Book 1, though with the footnote: "This favourite reel has been published in many collections, but none have subscribed the Author's name; it was composed by Mr. Lowe's father, many years ago, when he was teaching Dancing in Marykirk, Kincardineshire." MacDonald, in his Skye Collection opines "This excellent reel is in Mr. (John) Lowe's best style and very popular." Lowe was a dancing master in Marykirk whose famous reel first appeared in Archibald Duff's Collection of 1794 as "Raecheal Rea's Rant." His son was the Joseph Lowe who published a collection of melodies in the 1840's. Emmerson (1971) poses a class of Scottish reels defined by the rhythm quarter note-two eight notes-quarter note-two eight notes per measure. Tunes in this catagory include "Rachel Rae," "The Wind that Shakes the Barley," "Largo's Fairy Dance," and "De'il amang the Tailors." It has been suggested that the melody of "Rachel Rae" is the basis for the American old-time tune "Forked Deer." Bill Hardie (1986) thinks it is a "particulary suitable" tune to follow the triplet close of "Stirling Castle." See also "Archie Menzies" and "Sir David Davidson of Cantry" for other famous John Lowe compositions. Cameron's Selection of Violin Music (Glasgow), 1859; pg. 15. Hardie (Caledonian Companion), 1986; pg. 23. Honeyman (Strathspey, Reel and Hornpipe Tutor), 1898; pg. 7. Hunter (Fiddle Music of Scotland), 1988; No. 215. Kennedy (Fiddler's Tune Book), Vol 2, 1954; pg. 13. Kerr (Merry Melodies), Vol. 1; Set 2, No. 2, pg. 4. MacDonald (The Skye Collection), 1887; pg. 32. Raven (English Country Dance Tunes), 1984; pg. 178. Stewart-Robertson (The Athole Collection), 1884; pg. 89. Beltona 2103 (78 RPM), Edinburgh Highland Strathspey and Reel Society (1936). Fife Strathspey and Reel Society - "The Fiddle Sounds of Fife" (1980).
T:Rachel Rae
B:The Athole Collection
A,|D2FA d2Ac|d2fd fedc|d2Ad BAGF|E2AE FDD:|
A|defg a2fd|g2bg e2cA|defg a2fd|Agfe fddA|defg fafd|g2bg eecA|

RAILROAD(ING) THROUGH THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS. AKA and see "Cricket on the Hearth," "Damon's Winder," "The Devil in Georgia," "Grand Honrpipe," "Marmaduke's Hornpipe," "Mud Fence," "Ride the Goat Over the Mountain," "Rocky Mountain Goat," "Swiss Chalet." Old-Time, Breakdown. USA, Kentucky. D Major. Standard. AABB. Source for notated version: Jim Bowles (Kentucky) [Phillips]. Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes), 1994; pg. 194. Marimac 9000, Dan Gellert & Shoofly - "Forked Deer" (1986. Learned from a field recording of Ky. fiddler Jim Bowles). Marimac 9060, Jim Bowles - "Railroading Through the Rocky Mountains."

RALEIGH AND SPENCER. AKA and see "Riley and Spencer," "Ryland Spencer." Old-Time, Breakdown. USA; western North Carolina, southwestern Virginia. D Major. Standard or DDAD. One part. This tune was learned in the early 1920's by source Tommy Jarrell from his brother-in-law, guitarist Jim Gardner, who learned it from a black guitarist named Jim Raleigh). The tune had some currency among white musicians, especially guitarists, in the Galax (Va.)/Mt. Airy (N.C.) region. The melody is named for two towns in West Virginia.
So old Raleigh and Spencer's done and gone dry
Cause there ain't no more whiskey in this town
No, there ain't no whiskey in this town.
I can eat more chicken than a pretty girl can fry
And I'll tell her all them doggone lies
Yes, I'll tell her all them doggone lies.
You can tromp down them flowers all round my grave
But they'll rise and bloom again
Yes, they'll rise and bloom again. (Tommy Jarrell)
Source for notated version: Laurie Lewis [Fiddler Magazine]. Fiddler Magazine, Spring 1994; pg. 32. Biograph 6002, Fields Ward (Galax, Va.). County 756, Tommy Jarrell (Mt. Airy, N.C.) - "Sail Away Ladies" (1976). Flying Fish 515, Laurie Lewis - "Singin' My Troubles Away" (1990). Marimac 9000, Dan Gellert & Shoofly - "Forked Deer" (1986. Learned from Tommy Jarrell and Mike Seeger).

RILEY AND SPENCER. AKA and see "Raleigh and Spencer," "Ryland Spencer." Old-Time, Breakdown. USA; southwestern Va., western North Carolina. Named for two towns in West Virginia. Heritage XXIV, Tommy Jarrell - "Music of North Carolina" (Brandywine 1978). Marimac 9000, Dan Gellert & Shoofly - "Forked Deer" (1986. Learned from Tommy Jarrell & Mike Seeger"). Rounder SS-0145, Fields Ward (Galax, Va.) - "Traditional Music on Rounder: A Sampler" (1981).

SHEEP SHELL CORN BY THE RATTLING OF HIS HORN. AKA and see "Fuller's Reel." Old-Time, Breakdown. USA; Virginia, Arkansas. A Major ('A' part) & D Major/A Major ('B' part). Standard. AABB. The title (as "Sheepie Shell Corn") appears in a list of traditional Ozark Mountain fiddle tunes compiled by musicologist/folklorist Vance Randolph, published in 1954. Brad Leftwich calls the melody "Fuller's Reel" after his source, who had no name for it.
Never seen the like since I was born,
Sheep shell corn by the rattlin' of his horn.
Corn's in the cupboard and the butter's in the churn,
Never seen the like since I was born.
Sheep shell corn by the rattle of his horn,
Never seen the like since I was born.
Sheep shell corn by the rattle of his horn,
Swing that gal with the red dress on. (Highwoods)
African-American collector Thomas Talley (born c. 1870) printed a song called "Sheep Shell Corn" in his 1922 book Negro Folk Rhymes (set to a completely different tune), that contains the first line of the Highwood's song, but introduces a supernatural element to the lyric:
De Ram blow de ho'n an' de sheep shell co'n;
An' he sen' it to de mill by de buck-eyed Whoppoorwill.
Ole Joe's dead an' gone but his Hant blows de ho'n;
An' his hound howls still from de top o' dat hill.
De Fish-hawk said unto Mistah Crane;
I wishes to de Lawd dat you'd sen' a liddle rain;
Fer de water's all muddy, an de creek's gone dry;
If it 'twasn't fer de tadpoles we'd all die.
When de sheep shell co'n wid de rattle of his ho'n,
I wishes to de Lawd I'd never been bo'n;
Caze when he Hant blows de ho'n, de sperits all dance,
An' de hosses an' de cattle, dey whirls 'round an' prance.
Yonder comes Skilled an' dere goes Pot;
An here comes Jawbone 'cross de lot.
Walk Jawbone! Beat de Skilled an' de Pat!
You cut dat Pigeon's Wing, Black Man!
Take keer, gemmuns, an' let me through,
Caze I'se gwinter dance wid liddle Mollie Lou.
But I'se never seed de lak since I'se been born,
When de sheep shell co'on wid de rattle of his ho'n!
Sources for notated versions: Emmet Lundy (Grayson County, Virginia) and the Highwoods String Band (N.C.) [Kuntz]; Walt Koken & Bob Potts with the Highwoods String Band [Phillips]. Kuntz (Ragged but Right), 1987; pg. 357-358 (two versions). Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes), 1994; pg. 217. Heritage 056, Highwoods String Band- "The Young Fogies" (various artists). In the repertoire of Luther Davis, Galax, Va. Marimac 9000, Dan Gellert & Shoofly - "Forked Deer" (1986).
T:Sheep Shell Corn by the Rattling of his Horn
B:Kuntz - Ragged but Right
(e|e/)f/e/d/ c/B/A/c/|B/A/B/c/ d(e|e/)f/e/d/ c/B/A/c/|B/A/B/c/ A:|
|:(3A/B/c/|df e/d/B/A/|d/e/f g(3A/B/c/|df e/d/B/A/|B/A/B/c/ A:|
(e|e/)c/c/c/ e/c/c/c/|B/A/B/c/ d(e|e/)c/c/c/ e/c/c/c/|B/A/B/c/ A(e|
e/)(A/c/)(e/ e/)(A/c/)(A/|B/)A/B/(c/ d)(e|e/)(A/c/)(e/ e/)(A/c/)(A/|
B/)A/B/c/ A(3A/B/c/||
d/d/f/d/ e/(d/B/A/)|d/e/f/(f/ g)(3A/B/c/|d/d/f/d/ e/(d/c/A/|B/A/B/(c/ A)(3A/B/c/|
d/d/f/d/ e/(d/B/A/)|d/[df][d/f/] [d>g>](e|f/)(g/a/f/) ec/A/|B/A/B/(c/ A||

SUGAR HILL. AKA and see "Sailing on the Ocean." Old-Time, Breakdown. USA; Arkansas, North Carolina, Virginia. D Major. ADAE. AABB. The song has African-American roots and 'Sugar hill' is said to signify the 'wild part of town', the red-light district. Tom Paley says The title appears in a list of traditional Ozark Mountain fiddle tunes compiled by musicologist/folklorist Vance Randolph, published in 1954. The tune has come to be identified with Galax, Va., style string bands and it has also been described as a Surrey County, North Carolina, classic number.
Five cents in my pocket change, two dollars in my bill;
If I had ten dollars more I'd climb old Sugar Hill.
Possum sittin' on a 'simmon tree, cider's in my mill,
And if I had ten dollars more I'd climb on Sugar Hill.
If I hadn't no horse to ride, I'd be found a-walkin',
Up and down old Toenail Gap, you can hear my woman talkin'.
Jaybird and the sparrow hawk, they had a fight together,
They took all around the briar patch, went to it down to a feather. (all the above from Tommy Jarrell)
Squirrel's got a bushy tail, Possum's tail is bare,
Rabbit ain't got no tail at all, just a little old piece of hair.
Possum up a simmon tree, raccoon on the ground,
Raccoon says, "Hey, Possum, won't you toss them simmons down."
I'm getting lonesome for my gal, I want a drink of rye.
I'm going on to Sugar Hill, or know the reason why!
If you want to get your eye knocked out, if you want to get your fill,
If you want to get your eye knocked out, go on to Sugar Hill.
The phrase 'getting your eye knocked out' refers to copulation, according to Tom Paley. The Virginia Mountain Boomers (vocals by Ernest Stoneman) recorded a song called "Sugar Hill," which is actually the song "Devilish Mary" with the chorus of "Sugar Hill" tacked on. Sources for notated versions: Fuzzy Mountain String Band (North Carolina) [Brody]; Tommy Jarrell (Mt. Airy, North Carolina) [Jack Tuttle/Fiddler Magazine]. Fiddler Magazine, Spring 1995; pg. 28. Kuntz (Ragged but Right), 1987; pg. 303-304. Brody (Fiddler's Fakebook), 1983; pg. 269. Biograph 6003, "The Original Bogtrotters." County 534, "Round the Heart of Old Galax, Vol. II." County 2702, Tommy Jarrell & Fred Cockerham - "Tommy and Fred." Heritage 054, The Roan Mountain Hilltoppers - "Brandywine '83: Music of French America" (1984). June Appal 0067, Roan Mountain Hilltoppers - "Seedtime on the Cumberland" (1992). Marimac 9000, Dan Gellert & Shoofly - "Forked Deer" (1986. Learned from Fields Ward "and elsewhere," slightly different than Tommy Jarrell's version). Rounder 0035, Fuzzy Mountain String Band- "Summer Oaks and Porch" (1973. Learned from Tommy Jarrell). Rounder CD 0371, Mac Bendord and the Woodshed All-Stars - "Willow" (1996).
T:Sugar Hill
S:Kuntz - Ragged but Right
a>g fd/e/|fe d(a|a)a/b/ a/f/d|B>A Ba|a3 g|f/d/e/c/ d(d|d)d/B/ AA/B/|d>B d2:|
dd f>e|f/d/e d(d|d)d/e/ f/e/d|B>A B(d|d)d f>e|f/d/e/c/ d(d|d)d/B/ AA/B/|d>B d2:|

VAN BUREN. AKA and see "Forked Deer."

WILD HOG IN THE WOODS [1]. AKA and see "Old Bangum." Old-Time, Breakdown. USA, southwestern Va., Kentucky. A Dorian (Phillips): D Dorian (Fuzzy Mtn. String Band). AEAE or GDGD (Taylor Kimble). One part. Alan Jabbour says (regarding some instrumental versions) the tune is "almost certainly" an instrumental adaptation of the tune used in the Appalachians for the ballad "Bangum and the Boar" (Child 18) or "Old Bangum." There are words collected by Henry Galssie in 1962 from Mrs. Ruby Bowman Plemmons (Washington, D.C.), who learned them from her mother who lived in Laurel Fork, southwestern Va. Another version was recorded for the Library of Congress from Dan Tate. Guthrie Meade (1980) points out the tune's high part is the same as the tune "Fun's All Over."
There is a wild hog in yonders woods
(diddle on down, diddle on day)
There is a wild hog in yonders woods
(diddleon down the day)
There is a wild hog in these woods,
That eats men and seeks their blood.
(Cut him down, cut him down, catch/kill him if you can).
There comes a wild hog through yonders mash (marsh?)
Splitting his way through oaks and ash.
We followed that wild hog to his den,
Found the bones of a thousand men.
We followed that wild hog day and night,
Swore we'd make that wild hog fight.
We killed that hog with sticks and knife,
Swore we'd take that wild hog's life.
Source for notated version: Taylor Kimble (Va.) [Phillips]. Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes), Vol. 2, 1995; pg. 171. Flying Fish FF-275, "The Blue Flame Stringband" (1982. Learned from Pete Sutherland). Heritage XXXIII, Kimble Family (Va.) - "Visits" (1981). Marimac 9000, Dan Gellert & Shoofly - "Forked Deer" (1986. Learned from Brad Leftwich). Marimac 9036, the Kimble Family - "Carroll County Pioneers." Rounder 0010, The Fuzzy Mountain String Band (1972. Learned from southwestern Va. fiddler Taylor Kimble).

WOLVES A HOWLIN'. Old-Time, Breakdown. USA; Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Texas. A Major: G Major (John Brown, Phillips). AEAE (most versions): GDGD (John Brown). AAB (Phillips): AABB. Tom Rankin (1985) identifies the tune as one specific to the "Old Southwest", or the states of Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas. Southwestern Missouri Ozarks fiddler Bob Holt (1930) learned it from local sources. "Wolves..." was specialty tune of Tuscallosa fiddler Monkey Brown (1897-1972) who was active in Alabama contest fiddling in the 1920's and 30's. It was a common tune in western Alabama, especially the Tombigbee-Warrior region (Cauthen). The tune was one of several old-time fiddle pieces listed in a 1925 University of Alabama master's thesis by S.M. Taylor entitled "A Preliminary Survey of Folk-Lore in Alabama." Robert Fleder (1971) remarks that "Wolves Howlin'" has been collected in Mississippi and Oklahoma as well as Alabama, "but there is no reason to suspect that it is not indigenous to the Alabama-Mississippi region. The first line of the lyrics, according to Rankin, is common in tradition, but the second is often composed at the whim of the source.
Wolves outside howl and a-hollar
They gonna getch-you
Bet you a Dollar ! (Unknown)
O don't you hear them wolves a-howlin,
All around my poor little darlin';
Four on the hillside, six in the holler,
They're gonna get 'er, betcha a dollar. (Thede)
Don't you hear them wolves a-howling,
Setting in the corner talking to my darling. (Rankin)
----' Wolves a-howlin'
All around my poor little darlin'
Can't you see those blue clouds flyin'
Poor little darlin', home a-cryin' (or 'hollerin' and cryin')
Wolves are, howlin', howlin', howlin'
Oh the wolves are howlin'
Howlin' found my...{stop singing} (John Hatcher, Mississippi)
Sources for notated verisons: W.S. Collins (Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma) [Thede]; John Hartford [Phillips]. Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes), 1994; pg. 260. Thede (The Fiddle Book), 1967; pg. 133. Briar 4204, Earl Collins. County 401, "The Stripling Brothers." Marimac 9000, Dan Gellert & Shoofly - "Forked Deer" (1986). Mississippi Department of Archives and History AH-002, W.E. Claunch & John Brown - "Great Big Yam Potatoes: Anglo-American Fiddle Music From Mississippi" (1985. Two different renditions, originally recorded for the Library of Congress in 1939). Vocalation 5412/02770 (78 RPM), Stripling Brothers (Alabama) {1929}.

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