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ANNIE IN THE CABBAGE PATCH. AKA and see "Sla Andulka do Zeli." American. The melody, a once-popular children's dance in northern Wisconsin, is really the Czech tune "Sla Andulka do Zeli" (Leavy).

BACON AND CABBAGE. Old-Time. USA, Ky. Recorded for Victor in 1928 by Blind Joe Mangrum (b. 1853), Paducah, Ky., probably the second oldest fiddler to be recorded. "Bacon and Cabbage" and "Bill Cheatam" were his only released sides.

BAKE THEM HOECAKES BROWN. AKA and see "Boil Them Cabbage Down."

BILE THEM CABBAGE DOWN. AKA - "Boil Them Cabbage Down," "Bake Them Hoecakes Brown." Old-Time, Breakdown. USA; Oklahoma, Arkansas, southwestern Pa., northeast Alabama. D Major (Bayard, Thede): A Major (Reiner, Ruth, Sweet). Standard or AEAE (McMichen). One part: AABB (Sweet): AABBCCDD' (Ruth). The word 'bile' means 'boil'. Ralph Rinzler traces the tune to an early English country dance "Smiling Polly," in print in 1765. "Bile Them Cabbage Down" is commonly found in beginning fiddle instructors and in ditty-books, and is "a negro reel tune which has become universally popular among white square dance musicians" (Alan Lomax). African-American origins are evident in collections of White, Scarborough and Brown-all from black informants. Tennessee banjoist and entertainer Uncle Dave Macon recorded one of the first versions of the song in 1924. Clayton McMichen put together a virtuoso version of this tune to use in competition at various major fiddle contests. Also played by Arthur Smith on his radio broadcasts (Frank Maloy). The tune was Clayton McMichen's favorite contest tune, by his own account (Charles Wolfe). Richardson, in "American Mountain Songs", pg. 88., thought the tune was derived from "Oh Susanna." The title appears in a list of traditional Ozark Mountain fiddle tunes compiled by folklorist/musicologist Vance Randolph, published in 1954. Cauthen (1990) found evidence the tune was commonly known in northeast Alabama from its mention in two sources: reports of the De Kalb County Annual (Fiddlers') Convention 1926-31, and in the book Sourwood Tonic and Sassafras Tea (where it was listed as one of the tunes played by turn of the century Etowah County fiddler George Cole). Richard Nevins believes the tune was not known in the Mt. Airy, N.C., musical community until the advent of the phonograph.
African-American collector Thomas Talley was the first to publish the text of the song in his book Negro Folk Rhymes (1922, reprinted in 1991 edited by Charles Wolfe). His lyric (No. 232, "Cooking Dinner") goes:
Go: Bile dem cabbage down.
Turn dat hoecake 'round,
Cook it done an' brown.
Yes: Gwineter have sweet taters too.
Hain't had none since las' Fall,
Gwineter eat 'em skins an' all.
Sources for notated versions: Claude Thompson (Cotton County, Oklahoma) [Thede], John Nicholson (Fayette County, Pa., 1949) [Bayard]. Bayard (Dance to the Fiddle), 1981; No. 219, pg. 173. Reiner (Anthology of Fiddle Styles), 1977; pg. 8. Ruth (Pioneer Western Folk Tunes), 1948; No. 118, pg. 41 (appears as "Bake Those Hoe Cakes Brown"). Sweet (Fifer's Delight), 1964; pg. 76 (includes variations, and appears as "Boil the Cabbage Down"). Thede (The Fiddle Book), 1967; pg. 69. Recorded by numerous North Georgia bands: Riley Puckett and Gid Tanner (1924), The Skillet Lickers (1928), Earl Johnson (1928), and the Georgia Wildcats (1937) {Clayton McMichen's band}. County 723, Fred Cockerham, Tommy Jarrell & Oscar Jenkins - "Back Home in the Blue Ridge". Paramount 3151 (78 RPM), 1928, The Dixie Crackers {North Georgia}. Heritage 048, "Georgia Fiddle Bands" {Brandywine, 1982}, (1983). Vocalation 14849 (78 RPM), Uncle Dave Macon (1924).

BOIL THE CABBAGE DOWN. AKA and see "Bile the(m) Cabbage Down."

BOIL THE(M) CABBAGE DOWN [1]. AKA - "Bile Them Cabbage Down." Old-Time, Breakdown. A Major. Standard. AB (Phillips): AABB (Devil's Box). Known now as a beginner's tune especially useful for practicing the basic "Georgia Shuffle" rhythm, "Boil/Bile the Cabbage Down" has been widely known and played. The famous Georgia fiddler Clayton McMichen created a virtuoso version and featured it in competitions at major contests; Fiddlin' Arthur Smith also played it on his radio broadcasts (Frank Maloy). North Georgia fiddler Lowe Stokes played a version he called "Somebody's Rockin' My Sugar Lump." The Devil's Box, Vol. 23, #1, Spring 1989. Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes, Vol. 1), 1994; pg. 33. Fretless 101, "The Campbell Family: Champion Fiddlers." Rounder Records, Benton Flippen.

BOIL THE CABBAGE DOWN [2]. Old-Time, Breakdown. G Major. Standard. AABB. Little relation to version #1. Source for notated version: Johnson Family [Phillips]. Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes, Vol. 1), 1994; pg. 40.

BULL BEAF AND CABBAGE. Northumbrian. One of the "missing tunes" of William Vickers' 1770 Northumbrian dance tune manuscript.

CARO IN THE CABBAGE PATCH. AKA and see "Saro," "Cow in the Cabbage Patch." Old-Time, breakdown. USA, southwest Va. The tune is really the old-time breakdown and song "Saro," with a 2nd part added by Taylor Kimble (1892-1979), Patrick County, southwest Va.

CARVE DAT POSSUM [1]. See "'Possum Pie" and "Bile Them Cabbage Down." Old-Time, Song. USA; Tennessee, Oklahaoma. G Major. Standard. One part. Charles Wolfe (1991) identifies this as a piece written and performed by black minstrel Sam Lucas about 1870, that appears in a few collections of minstrel songs. Thede printed the following stanza with the tune, collected from Oklahoma fiddlers:
Carve dat 'possum Hannah,
Carve dat 'possum soon;
For de pan am ready,
An here am de spoon.
African-American collector Thomas Talley, in his book Negro Folk Rhymes (reprinted in 1991, edited by Charles Wolfe), gave the title as "An Opossum Hunt" and printed the text:
Possum meat is good an' sweet Carve him to de heart,
I always finds it good to eat, Carve him to de heart
Charve dat possum!
Charve dat possum!
Charve dat possum!
Oh charve 'im to de heart!
My dog tree, I went to see Carve him to de heart,
A great big possum up dat tree Carve him to de heart,
I retch up an' pull him in, Carve him to de heart,
Dat ol' possum 'gin to grin, Carve him to de heart,
I tuck him home an' dressed him off Carve him to de heart,
Dat night I laind him in de' fros', Carve him to de heart,
De way I cooked dat possum sound, Carve him to de heart,
I fust parboiled, den baked him brown Carve him to de heart,
I put sweet taters in de pan, Carve him to de heart,
'Twas de bigges' eatin' in de lan' Carve him to de heart.
Thede (The Fiddle Book), 1967; pg. 69. Vocalation 5151 (78 RPM), Uncle Dave Macon (1927).

COW IN THE CABBAGE PATCH. AKA and see "Saro," "Caro in the Cabbage Patch."

HAUGHS O' CROMDALE, THE. AKA and see "Barrack Hill," "Lady Catherine Stewart/Stuart," "Merry Maids Meeting," "Merry Maid's Wedding," "New Killiecrankie," "O'Neill's March," "Sid mar chaidh n' Cal a gholaigh" (That is How the Cabbage Was Boiled), "The Spilling of the Kale," "Tralee Gaol." Scottish, Canadian; Strathspey, Air or Polka. Canada; Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island. E Minor/Dorian (Dunlay & Greenberg/MacMaster, Perlman): A Dorian (Dunlay & Greenberg/Campbell): D Minor (Lowe, Surenne). Standard. AAB (Honeyman): AABB (Athole, Dunlay & Greenberg/MacMaster, Emmerson, Kerr, Perlman, Skye): AA'BB' (Dunlay & Greenberg/Campbell). 'Haughs' are the low-lying ground along a river, in this case the Cromdale. The melody is an example of a strathspey of the schottisch structure, states Emmerson (1971); two accents to the bar {on the first and third beats of the measure} instead of one. Dunlay & Greenberg point out there are two main strains of the tune: both have similar 'A' parts, but the 'B' parts differ, one beginning on the tonic/I chord and one beginning on the VII chord. They speculate that the tune originally had only one part, as many ballads did, but that differing second turns were added to it later. John Glen (1891) finds the earliest printing of the tune in Angus Cumming's 1780 Scottish collection (A Collection of Strathspeys or Old Highland Reels, pg. 15), though it also appeared in print the same year in Alexander McGlashan's Collection of Reels as "Merry Maid's Wedding." Creighton and Calum MacLeod (1979) find it earlier in Scotland in the Margaret Sinclair Manuscript (c. 1710) under the title "New Killiecrankie," and Dunlay and Greenberg report it was said to be in an older manuscript under the title "Wat ye how the play began."
A Scottish country dance also goes by the name of "Haughs of Cromdale," one of the relatively few that go in strathspey tempo. Flett and Flett (1964) date the dance from somtime after 1855, the date of the introduction of the Highland Schottische, for Haughs incorporates the Highland Schottische's movements. In the Dalbeattie district of Kirkcudbrightshire before 1914 the dance was very popular, according to an informant (Mrs. Margaret Patterson of Auchencairn) who danced it as a young girl. Mrs. Patterson remembered the dance always was accompanied by a briskly played schottische such as "Kafoozalum," "Orange and Blue" or "Wha's a' the steer, kimmer."
During the battle of the Haughs of Cromdale in the 17th century a piper in the routed Jacobite army under the inept General Buchan bravely attempted to rally his comrades. Though badly wounded, he clambered atop a rock and continued to play until he expired; the very rock can be seen today and is still named Clach a Phíobair, the Piper's Stone (Collinson, 1975). Perhaps in memory of this feat of bravery, "Haughs of Cromdale" was one of the pipe tunes played by the British 92nd Regiment at the battle of Maya, 1813, which served to so inflame the Highlanders that they charged the French, who became so panic stricken at their audacity that they turned and ran (Winstock, 1970; pg. 139). David Glen (in his bagpipe Tutor) states the tune was the "charge and double post of the Gordon Highlanders." Dunlay & Greenberg find the tune set as both a march and a strathspey in various bagpipe collections, including Logan's Complete Tutor for the Bagpipes and The Scots Guards Collection (set as a four-part march).
As with many popular British Isles tunes, there were various sets of words attached to it. "As I came in by Auchindown" is one common ballad sung to the air (which tells of a battle with the English on the haughs) and can be found in James Hogg's Jacobite Relics of Scotland (Vol. 1, 1819). "Birniebouzle" is another song set to "Haughs". In Cape Breton there was a Gaelic song entitled "Sid mar chaidh an cal a dholaigh" (That is How the Kale/Cabbage Was Ruined/Spoiled) that tells the amusing story of a meeting between Scottish Highlanders and Lowlanders at an inn and how the kale broth was ruined while the lady of the house was dancing (Dunlay & Greenberg). Bayard identifies this as one of the tunes from the large "Welcome Home" tune family. See "Cape North Jig" for a 6/8 time setting of "Haughs" and the A Minor Irish variant "Tralee Gaol." Sources for notated versions: John Campbell (Cape Breton) [Dunlay & Greenberg]; Kevin Chaisson (b. 1950, Bear River, North-East Kings County, Prince Edward Island) [Perlman]. Dunlay & Greenberg (Traditional Celtic Violin Music of Cape Breton), 1996; pgs. 36 & 85. Emmerson (Rantin' Pipe and Tremblin' String), 1971; No. 65, pg. 153. David Glen (Bagpipe Tutor), 1876-1901 (two settings). Gow (Beauties of Niel Gow), 1819. Honeyman (Strathspey, Reel and Hornpipe Tutor), 1898; pg. 14. Kerr (Merry Melodies), Vol. 1; Set 7, No. 1, pg. 6. Lowe (A Collection of Reels and Strathspeys), 1844. MacDonald (The Skye Collection), 1887; pg. 85. MacDonald (The Gesto Collection). Middleton's, 1870. Perlman (The Fiddle Music of Prince Edward Island), 1996; pg. 198. Stewart-Robertson (The Athole Collection), 1884; pg. 249. Surenne (Dance Music of Scotland), 1852. ACC-49290, Natalie MacMaster - "Road to the Isle." ACC-4925, Tara Lynne Touesnard - "Heritage." Kicking Mule KM-327, "Scartaglen" (1984. Played as a march). RCC-102, Ian McKinnon & Rawlins Cross - "Crossing the Border" (1991). RMD-CAS1, Rodney MacDonald - "Dancer's Delight" (1995). Rounder 7003, John Campbell - "Cape Breton Violin Music"(1976. Appears as "Traditional Strathspey," side two).
T:Haughs of Cromdale
B:The Athole Collection
K:E Minor
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d>BA>F ~E2 E:|
|:F|D<d d>e d/^c/B/A/ d2|F<A A>B A<F A2|B<e e>f g>fe>d|
B<d B/A/G/F/ E2E:|

HEAD OF CABBAGE, THE. There was a time, according to collector and fiddler Philippe Varlet, that Irish fiddler Frankie Gavin called nearly every tune he didn't have a name for "The Head of Cabbage." For example, there is a tune on the De Dannan album "Star Spangled Molly" (Shanachie 79018) under the Cabbage title which is actually Ed Reavy's "Love at the Endings."

HEY FOR BEAF WITHOUT CABBAGE. English. England, Northumberland. One of the "missing tunes" from William Vickers' 1770 Northumbrian dance tune manuscript.

JULIE GIRL. AKA and see "Saro," "Cow in the Cabbage Patch," "Caro in the Cabbage Patch."

LOVE AT THE ENDINGS. Irish, Reel. D Major. Standard. AA'BB'. Composed by the late County Cavan/Philadelphia composer and fiddler Ed Reavy (1898-1988). Ed's son Joe Reavy alludes to O'Casey's Purple Dust, in which O'Killigan speaks in an effort to woo Avril away from ther British lord and move with him to the west of Ireland. He suggests they'll find "things to say and things to do, and love at the endings." Reavy, Music from Corktown; pg. 20. Reavy (The Collected Compositions of Ed Reavy), No. 12, pg. 12. Taylor (Through the Half-Door), 1992; No. 32, pg. 23. Ossian Publications OSS-18, Kevin Burke - "Sweeney's Dream." Outlet SOLP 1033, Josephine Keegan - "Irish Traditional Music" (1977). Shanachie SHA 79018, De Danann - "Star Spangled Molly" (appears as "The Head of Cabbage"--see note for that tune for an explanation). Shaskeen - "Atlantic Breeze."

OH SUSANNA(H). American (originally); Song Tune. English, Morris Dance Tune (6/8 time). G Major. Standard. AB. The original version was composed by Stephen Foster and became a popular song tune. It was cited as commonly played for Orange County, New York country dances in the 1930's (Lettie Osborn, New York Folklore Quarterly) and was imported overseas where a jig version was used as a tune for a single step dance in the North-West England morris dance tradition. Richardson (1927, 1955) thinks the tune is the ancestor to "Bile Them Cabbage Down", which Bayard (1981) lukewarmly "supposes" is possible. Raymond Francois (1990) sees resemblance between the popular Cajun tune "J'etais au Bal" and "Oh, Susannah." The late Luther Davis, a fiddler from Galax, Va., had a version of the tune he often played. Sweet (Fifer's Delight), 1965/1981; pg. 9. Wade (Mally's North West Morris Book), 1988; pg. 21. Victor 36400A (78 RPM), Woodhull's Old Tyme Masters (N.Y.), 1941.

POSSUM PIE. AKA- "Carve Dat Possum," "Bile Them Cabbage Down." Old-Time, Breakdown. USA. G Major. Standard. One Part. The tune is identified by Thede as a Negro 'banjo tune'.
Carve that 'possum Hannah,
Carve that possum soon;
For the pan is ready,
And I am the spoon.
Thede (The Fiddle Book), 1967; pg. 69.

SARO. AKA and see "Caro in the Cabbage Patch," "Cow in the Cabbage Patch," "Julie Girl." Old-Time, Breakdown. USA; West Virginia, eastern Tennessee, Virginia. D Major. Standard. AABB. Recorded in 1928 for Brunswick/Vocalation by West Virginia string band duo the Cumberland Mountain Entertainers (Sam Caplinger & fiddler Andy Patterson {1893-1950}). Later the duo moved to Akron, Ohio, and formed the Dixie Harmonizers, who recorded for Gennett. Tom Carter and Barry Poss (1976) remark that the tune is common in the Patrick County, southwestern Virginia, area both as a dance or 'band' tune, and a song (with many verses).
Saro, Saro, come lay your hand in mine,
Treat you like a lady just long as the sun does shine.
Ya hadn't been gonna marry me, ya ought't told me so,
I could have been a married man, forty years ago.
Went to see my gal one day, what'd ya reckon she done,
Stole her arm around my neck, thought my time had come.
Went to see my gal one day, where'd ya reckon I found her,
Found her in a buckleberry patch, forty men around her.
Went to see my gal one day, she met me at the door,
Shoes and Stockings in her hand, feet all over the floor.
Once I was a little boy, all I want's a knife,
Now I am a great big boy, all I want's a wife.
Used to be a little boy, tot my momma's switches,
Now I am a great big boy, wear my daddy's britches.
High jack, low jack, tray (?) can't be low
Before I play an unfair game, take my money and go.
(Tom Carter & Blanton Owen from Calvin Pendleton)
Source for notated version: Dudley Spangler [Phillips]. Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes), 1994; pg. 215. Broadway 8159, The Blue Ridge Highballers - "Julie Girl." County 201, The Old Virginia Fiddlers - "Rare Recordings 1948-49." County 405, The Hillbillies - "Soldier's Joy Medley." County 531, Caplinger's Cumberland Mountain Entertainers (Roane County, Tenn.) - "Old Time String Band Classics, 1927-1933" (1975). Rounder 0057, Calvin Pendleton (Patrick County, Va.) - "Old Originals, Vol. 1" (1978).

SLA ANDULKA DO ZELI. AKA and see "Annie in the Cabbage Patch." Czech. A popular folk melody among the ethnic Czech community of northern Wisconsin.

SMILING POLLY. AKA and see "The Twin Sisters," "The Keel Row." English, Country Dance and Air (2/4 time). F Major (Chappell): D Major (Kidson). Standard. AB (Chappell): AABB (Kidson). Ralph Rinzler traces the Old-Time tune "Bile Them Cabbage Down" to this tune (though I think Kidson's "The Wedding Ring" just as easily could be another of probably many similar source tunes), which appeared in print in 1765 in Thompson's 200 Country Dances and/or Thompson's Dances for 1763. Kidson (1890) points out the similarity of this tune with "Yorkshire Lad," "The Dumb Glutton" and the more famous "Keel Row." Chappell (Popular Music of the Olden Time), Vol. 2, 1859; pg. 185. Kidson (Old English Country Dances), 1890; pg. 18.

SOMEBODY'S ROCKIN' MY SUGER LUMP. AKA and see "Boil Them Cabbage Down."

WEDDING RING, THE [3]. English, Country Dance Tune (cut time). D Major. Standard. AABBCC. This tune can be found as No. 8 in "Dale's Collection of Reels and Dances" (folio, c. 1806). In the 'C' part the melody resembles the American tune "Bile Them Cabbage Down." Kidson (Old English Country Dances), 1890; pg. 12.

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